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Plant activators, including acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), are chemical compounds that stimulate plant defense responses to pathogens. ASM treatment inhibits infection by a variety of plant viruses, however the mechanisms of this broad-spectrum and strong effect remain poorly understood. We employed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing viruses and plants to identify the infection stages that are restricted by ASM. ASM suppressed infection by three viral species, plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), potato virus X (PVX), and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), in inoculated cells. Furthermore, ASM delayed the long-distance movement of PlAMV and PVX, and the cell-to-cell (short range) movement of TuMV. The ASM-mediated delay of long-distance movement of PlAMV was not due to the suppression of viral accumulation in the inoculated leaves, indicating that ASM restricts PlAMV infection in at least two independent steps. We used mutants to show that the ASM-mediated restriction of PlAMV infection requires the NPR1 gene, but was independent of the dicer-like genes essential for RNA silencing. Furthermore, experiments using protoplasts showed that ASM treatment inhibited PlAMV replication without cell death. Our approach, using GFP-expressing viruses, will be useful for the analysis of mechanisms underlying plant activator-mediated virus restriction.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI
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A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
A plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
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