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The role of dairy products in cancer is unclear. We assessed consumption of fermented milk, non-fermented milk, cheese, and butter, estimated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, in relation to prospective risk of breast, prostate, colorectal, smoking-, and obesity-related cancers in 101,235 subjects, including 12,552 cancer cases, in the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Most analyses ( = 20) rendered null results. In men, we observed an increased prostate cancer risk among high-consumers of cheese (hazard ratio (HR) for highest vs. lowest quintile (Q5-Q1), 1.11; 95% CI, 0.97-1.27; = 0.013). In women, high-consumers of cheese had a decreased risk of overall cancer (HR Q5-Q1, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04; = 0.039), smoking-related (HR Q5-Q1, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97; ≤ 0.001), and colorectal cancers (HR Q5-Q1, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.63-1.07; = 0.048). Butter yielded a weak decreased obesity-related cancer risk in women (HR Q5-Q1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81-1.02; = 0.049). Fermented milk yielded HRs below zero in women, but with no clear linear associations. In conclusion, this study does not support any major adverse or beneficial effects of fermented milk, non-fermented milk, cheese, and butter in the diet from a cancer risk perspective.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nutrition and cancer
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Country in northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Finland and Norway. The capital is Stockholm.
A country located in northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden. The capital is Oslo.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
A country in northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia. The capital is Helsinki.
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