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We investigate the fluctuations of the time elapsed until the electric charge transferred through a conductor reaches a given threshold value. For this purpose, we measure the distribution of the first-passage times for the net number of electrons transferred between two metallic islands in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical calculations based on a recent theory describing the exact first-passage-time distributions for any nonequilibrium stationary Markov process. We also derive a simple analytical approximation for the first-passage-time distribution, which takes into account the non-Gaussian statistics of the electron transport, and show that it describes the experimental distributions with high accuracy. This universal approximation describes a wide class of stochastic processes, and can be used beyond the context of mesoscopic charge transport. In addition, we verify experimentally a fluctuation relation between the first-passage-time distributions for positive and negative thresholds.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
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A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
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The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Collaborations in biotechnology
Commercial and academic collaborations are used throughout the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector to enhance research and product development. Collaborations can take the form of research and evaluation agreements, licensing, partnerships etc. ...