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We demonstrate controlled material transport driven by temperature differences in thin freely suspended smectic films. Films with submicrometer thicknesses and lateral extensions of several millimeters were studied in microgravity during suborbital rocket flights. In-plane temperature differences cause two specific Marangoni effects, directed flow and convection patterns. At low gradients, practically thresholdless, flow transports material with a normal (negative) temperature coefficient of the surface tension dσ/dT<0 from the hot to the cold film edge, it accumulates at the cold film edge. In materials with dσ/dT>0, the reverse transport from the cold to the hot edge is observed. We present a model that describes the effect quantitatively. It predicts that not the temperature gradient in the film plane but the temperature difference between the thermopads is relevant for the effect.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
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Works consisting of nonfiction films and video designed to teach, instruct, or train. (From Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, 1988)
Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.
The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Works consisting of films, videos, and programs which depict actual persons or actual events. They do not include frank historical re-creations and do not attempt to judge the truth of the depiction in a film purporting to be factual or documentary in character. (From Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, 1988)
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.