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The biggest challenge of potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) application is to develop high performance electrode materials for accommodating the large-size potassium ions. Herein, by rational design, we carbonize three-dimensional (3D) order macroporous ZIF-8 to fabricate 3D interconnected nitrogen doped hierarchical porous carbon (N-HPC) that delivers excellent rate capability (94 mAh g-1 at 10.0 A g-1), unprecedented cycle life (157 mA g-1 after 12000 cycles at 2.0 A g-1) and high reversible capacity (292 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1). The 3D hierarchical porous structure reduces the diffusion distance for both ions/electrons, while N-doping improves the reactivity and electronic conductivity via producing extrinsic defects. In addition, the bicontinuous structure possesses large surface area, decreasing the current density, again improving the rate performance. In-situ Raman spectra analysis confirms that the potassiation and depotassiation in the N-HPC are highly reversible processes. The Galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT) measurement and the first-principles calculations reveal that the interconnected macroporous are more beneficial to the diffusion of the K+. This 3D interpenetrating structure demonstrates the superiority for energy storage applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nano letters
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Supramolecular networks that consist of ordered arrangements of organic electron donor linkers (usually ditopic or polytopic organic carboxylates) and metal cations. They can have an extremely high surface area and adjustable pore size that allows for the insertion of other molecules capable of various functions such as catalysis, capture of carbon dioxide, and drug delivery.
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The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.