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Amyloidosis, the aggregation of naturally soluble proteins into fibrils, is the main pathological hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and new therapeutic approaches can be introduced through nanotechnology. Herein, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are proposed to combat amyloidosis and act as CNS theranostic (therapy and diagnosis) candidates through magnetomechanical forces that can be induced under a low-frequency magnetic field. In that vein, a modified one-step microwave-assisted polyol process has been employed to synthesize hybrid organic/inorganic zinc ferrite (ZnxFe3-xO4) MNPs with different levels of zinc doping (0.30 < x < 0.6) derived from the utilized polyol. The lowest doped (x = 0.30) MNPs exhibited high magnetization (127 emu/g), high T2 imaging ability (r2 = 432 mM-1s-1) and relatively small hydrodynamic size (180 nm), decisive characteristics to further evaluate their CNS theranostic potential. Their effect on the fibrillation/degradation was monitored in two model proteins, insulin and albumin, in the presence/absence of variant external magnetic fields (static, rotating or alternating) via Thioﬂavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay and optical fluorescence microscopy. The MNPs were injected either in oligomers solution where significant fibrillation delay was observed, boosted by zinc ionic leaching of MNPs, or in already formed amyloid plaques where up to 86% amyloid degradation was recorded in the presence of magnetic fields, unveiling magnetomechanical antifibrillation properties. The alternating magnetic field (4Hz) allows the bouncing of the MNPs into the amyloid net driven by the magnetic forces, and thus is featured as the preferred "dancing mode", which strengthens the degrading efficacy of MNPs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS chemical neuroscience
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A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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