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Halomethanesulfonic acids (HMSAs) are recently discovered polar disinfection by-products without commercially available reference materials. To allow for their accurate quantification, we successfully synthesized standards for the four presumably most prevalent HMSA congeners: chloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid. After structure confirmation and quantification with high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we integrated them into a multi-layer solid phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method dedicated to the analysis of polar water contaminants. With this method we monitored HMSAs in drinking water production plants from four European countries and tap water samples taken in six countries. HMSAs were detected in the low µg/L after the chlorination step during drinking water production, all tap waters samples, and two surface waters used for drinking water production. Concentrations in tap water samples ranged from 0.07 µg/L to 11.5 µg/L while the HMSA concentrations in surface waters were in the range of 100 ng/L. We utilized the HMSA formation potential to indirectly asses the behaviour of hitherto unknown HMSA precursors, consequently identifying ozonation, filtration through activated carbon and reverse osmosis as efficient removal tools for HMSA precursors, thus limiting their formation during subsequent water disinfection.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Dicarboxylic acids with a PYRIDINE backbone. Quinolinic Acids are downstream products of the KYNURENINE pathway which metabolize amino acid TRYPTOPHAN.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.