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Increasing recognition of the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and the existence of defined redox potential in healthy tissues has led to extensive research in the development of redox-responsive materials for biomedical applications. Especially, considerable growth has been seen in the fabrication of polymeric nanogel-based drug delivery carriers utilizing redox-responsive cross-linkers bearing a variety of functional groups via various synthetic strategies. Redox-responsive polymeric nanogels provide an advantage of facile chemical modification post synthesis and exhibit a remarkable response to biological redox stimuli. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, a more profound combined conceptual knowledge from a chemical and biological point of view is imperative for the rational design of redox-responsive nanogels. The present review provides an insight into the design and fabrication of redox-responsive nanogels with particular emphasis on synthetic strategies utilized for the development of redox-responsive cross-linkers, polymerization techniques being followed for nanogel development and biomedical applications. Cooperative effect of redox trigger with other stimuli such as pH and temperature in the evolution of dual and triple stimuli-responsive nanogels is also discussed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Macromolecular bioscience
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Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A nuclear receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the RARA gene. It belongs to a family of transcription regulators of ligand-responsive regulatory proteins which include steroid hormone receptors. In addition to a C-terminal ligand-binding domain, these nuclear receptors contain a highly-conserved N-terminal zinc-finger domain that mediates binding ligand-responsive elements.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...
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