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Population responses to environmental change depend on both the ecological interactions between species and the evolutionary responses of all species. In this study, we explore how evolution in prey, predators, or both species affect the responses of predator populations to a sustained increase in mortality. We use an eco-evolutionary predator-prey model to explore how evolution alters the predator extinction threshold (defined as the minimum mortality rate that prevents population growth at low predator densities) and predator hydra effects (increased predator abundance in response to increased mortality). Our analysis identifies how evolutionary responses of prey and predators individually affect the predator extinction threshold and hydra effects, and how those effects are altered by interactions between the evolutionary responses. Based on our theoretical results, we predict that it is common in natural systems for evolutionary responses in one or both species to allow predators to persist at higher mortality rates than would be possible in the absence of evolution (i.e., evolution increases the predator mortality extinction threshold). We also predict that evolution-driven hydra effects occur in a minority of natural systems, but not rare. We revisited published eco-evolutionary models and found that evolution causes hydra effects and increases the predator extinction threshold in many studies, but those effects have been overlooked. We discuss the implications of these results for species conservation, predicting population responses to environmental change, and the possibility of evolutionary rescue.
This article was published in the following journal.
We investigate the evolution of timidity in a prey species whose predator has cannibalistic tendencies. The ecological model is derived from individual-level processes, in which the prey seeks refuge ...
Predators are an important selective pressure for prey, and responses to visual exposure to non-predators and to allopatric and sympatric predators may assist the understanding of how prey animals rec...
Reproductive synchrony is a widespread phenomenon that is predicted to be adaptive for prey with specialist predators but not for those with generalist ones. I tested this prediction in three polar se...
One of the possible ways to visualize the effect of intra- and inter-species synergistic and antagonistic interactions in a natural ecosystem is the detailed analysis of the underlying prey-predator m...
1.Urbanization is considered the fastest growing form of global land use change, and can dramatically modify habitat structure and ecosystem functioning. While ecological processes continue to operate...
Our objective here is to characterize the viral evolution and viral factors determining HIV virulence, the evolution of the HIV reservoir in PBMC and the co-evolution of anti-HIV CD8 T cel...
To examine existence of connection between fat utilization points, both maximal and minimal with individual metabolic thresholds in different subjects. As a consequence, this innovative ap...
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent valvulopathy in Western countries. The prevalence of AS is constantly increasing due to the aging of the population. Several studies have shown th...
Aim of the study is to determine heat pain thresholds (HPT in °C) and cold pain thresholds (CPT in °C) during topical capsaicin 8% application, and mechanical pain thresholds (MPT in g) ...
In view of the ageing population and the increasing fragility of geriatric patients, it seems interesting to carry out a retrospective epidemiological observational study, on the evolution...
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Evolution at the molecular level of DNA sequences and proteins. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.