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First introduced into the United States in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has become endemic and has established itself as the predominant mosquito-borne arbovirus in North America. Transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Culex, regional landscapes influence local vector species abundance, creating different mosquito ecologies that drive local transmission dynamics. In central Iowa, two mosquito species, Culex restuans Theobald and Culex pipiens Linnaeus, serve as the predominant mosquito vectors. Importantly, these mosquito populations are influenced by seasonal patterns in their abundance, with Cx. restuans preferring cool, early spring temperatures, while Cx. pipiens prefer the warmer, mid- to late-summer months. The point of the season at which Cx. pipiens becomes the dominant species is generally referred to as a 'crossover' period. To better understand the influence of crossover dynamics on WNV transmission, we examined environmental and mosquito abundance data, as well as mosquito infection rates and human disease cases from 2016 to 2018. We demonstrate that temperature influences the timing and duration of the crossover period, influencing mosquito abundance and human disease transmission. Together, these results suggest that Culex species crossover is an important variable of WNV transmission dynamics, which may provide an early warning indicators of increased WNV transmission.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of medical entomology
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An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic wing venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...