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Fusarium wilt of watermelon, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), occurs worldwide and is responsible for substantial yield losses in watermelon-producing areas of the southeastern United States. Management of this disease largely relies on the use of integrated pest management (i.e., fungicides, resistant cultivars, crop rotation, etc.). Knowledge about race structure and genetic diversity of FON in the southeastern US is limited. To determine genetic diversity of the pathogen, FON isolates were collected from symptomatic watermelon plants in commercial fields in Georgia and Florida, USA, and identified based on morphological characteristics and PCR analysis using FON-specific primers. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) of 99 isolates genotyped with 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers grouped the isolates in eight distinct clusters with two prominent clusters (clusters 1 and 8). Cluster 1 consisted of a total of 14 isolates, out of which 85.7% of the isolates were collected in Florida. However, most of the isolates (92.4%) in cluster 8 were collected in Georgia. Both DAPC and pairwise population differentiation analysis (ФPT) revealed that the genetic groups were closely associated with geographical locations of pathogen collection. Three races of FON (races 0, 2 and 3) were identified in the phenotypic analysis; with race 3 identified for the first time in Georgia. Overall, 5.1%, 38.9% and 55.9% of the isolates were identified as race 0, race 2 and race 3, respectively. The majority of the isolates in cluster 1 and cluster 8 belonged to either race 2 (35.6%) or race 3 (45.8%). Additionally, no relationship between genetic cluster assignment and races of the isolates was observed. The information obtained on genotypic and phenotypic diversity of FON in the southeastern US will help in development of effective disease management programs to combat Fusarium wilt.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...