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Neural activity in the brain is usually coupled to increases in local cerebral blood flow, leading to the increase in oxygenation that generates the BOLD fMRI signal. Recent work has begun to elucidate the vascular and neural mechanisms underlying the BOLD signal. The dilatory response is distributed throughout the vascular network. Arteries actively dilate within a second following neural activity increases, while venous distensions are passive and have a time course that last tens of seconds. Vasodilation, and thus local blood flow, is controlled by the activity of both neurons and astrocytes via multiple different pathways. The relationship between sensory-driven neural activity and the vascular dynamics in sensory areas are well-captured with a linear convolution model. However, depending on the behavioral state or brain region, the coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic signals can be weak or even inverted.
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Name: Current opinion in neurobiology
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A term used in Eastern European research literature for the functional neural unit that provides the basis for differential sensitivity; the analyzer consists of receptor, afferent nerves, and their central connections. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Vascular relates to blood vessels (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and can be used to describe the supply of blood, a disease affecting the blood vessels or molecules associated with these structures. For example, <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->atherosclerosis ...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...