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Biotherapeutics may contain a multitude of different post-translational modifications (PTMs) that need to be assessed and possibly monitored and controlled to ensure reproducible product quality. During early development of biotherapeutics, unexpected PTMs might be prevented by identification and characterization together with further molecular engineering. Mass determinations of a human IgG1 (mAb1) and a bispecific IgG-ligand fusion protein (BsAbA) demonstrated the presence of unusual PTMs resulting in major +80 Da, and +16/+32 Da chain variants, respectively. For mAb1, analytical cation exchange chromatography demonstrated the presence of an acidic peak accounting for 20%. A + 79.957 Da modification was localized within the light chain complementarity-determining region-2 and identified as a sulfation based on accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and a complete neutral loss reaction upon collision-induced dissociation. Top-down ultrahigh resolution MALDI-ISD FT-ICR MS of modified and unmodified Fabs allowed the allocation of the sulfation to a specific Tyr residue. An aspartate in amino-terminal position-3 relative to the affected Tyr was found to play a key role in determining the sulfation. For BsAbA, a + 15.995 Da modification was observed and localized to three specific Pro residues explaining the +16 Da chain A, and +16 Da and +32 Da chain B variants. The BsAbA modifications were verified as 4-hydroxyproline and not 3-hydroxyproline in a tryptic peptide map via co-chromatography with synthetic peptides containing the two isomeric forms. Finally, our approach for an alert system based on in-house predictors is presented. This system is designed to prevent these PTMs by molecular design and engineering during early biotherapeutic development.
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Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).
Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.
A biochemical phenomenon in which misfolded proteins aggregate either intra- or extracellularly. Triggered by factors such as MUTATION, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, and environmental stress, it is generally associated with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PARKINSON DISEASE; HUNTINGTON DISEASE; and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
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The field encompassing therapeutic materials produced using biological means, including recombinant DNA technology. Biotherapeutics, also known as biotech drugs or biologics, are therapies derived from living organisms. By harnessing these living cells...
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