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Recently, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have emerged as a new UV source, bringing flexibility for various UV wavelength combinations due to their unique feature of wavelength diversity. In this study, we investigated inactivation mechanisms of representative microorganisms at different wavelength combinations using UV-LEDs. Two types of indicator microorganisms were examined, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a representative bacteria and bacteriophage MS2 as a representative virus. Different inactivation effects were observed, and the results for UVA pretreatment followed by UVC inactivation were particularly interesting. While a substantial shoulder in the E. coli UVC inactivation curve was observed, this was reduced by UVA pretreatment (365 nm) at 17 J/cm. Further, 52 J/cm UVA eliminated the shoulder in the fluence-response curves, resulting in improved UVC (265 nm) inactivation of E. coli by over two orders of magnitude. No inactivation improvement was observed for MS2. Moreover, UVA pretreatment eliminated photoreactivation of E. coli but did not affect dark repair. Detailed investigation of inactivation mechanisms revealed that hydroxyl radicals (•OH) played a significant role in the effects of UVA pretreatment. This study demonstrated that •OH radicals were generated inside E. coli cells during UVA pretreatment, which accounted for the subsequent effects on E. coli. The impact of UVA pretreatment on E. coli inactivation and reactivation was mainly due to increased levels of •OH radicals in E. coli cells, impairing cell functions such as DNA self-repair.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint causes pain, stiffness, and swelling with ...