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Thylakoids are the place of the light-photosynthetic reactions. To gain maximal efficiency, these reactions are conditional to proper pigment-pigment and protein-protein interactions. In higher plants thylakoids, the interactions lead to a lateral asymmetry in localization of protein complexes (i.e. granal/stromal thylakoids) that have been defined as a domain-like structures characteristic by different biochemical composition and function (Albertsson P-Å. 2001,Trends Plant Science 6: 349-354). We explored this complex organization of thylakoid pigment-proteins at single cell level in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our 3D confocal images captured heterogeneous distribution of all main photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes (PPCs), Photosystem I (fluorescently tagged by YFP), Photosystem II and Phycobilisomes. The acquired images depicted cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane as a stable, mosaic-like structure formed by microdomains (MDs). These microcompartments are of sub-micrometer in sizes (~0.5-1.5 μm), typical by particular PPCs ratios and importantly without full segregation of observed complexes. The most prevailing MD is represented by MD with high Photosystem I content which allows also partial separation of Photosystems like in higher plants thylakoids. We assume that MDs stability (in minutes) provides optimal conditions for efficient excitation/electron transfer. The cyanobacterial MDs thus define thylakoid membrane organization as a system controlled by co-localization of three main PPCs leading to formation of thylakoid membrane mosaic. This organization might represent evolutional and functional precursor for the granal/stromal spatial heterogeneity in photosystems that is typical for higher plant thylakoids.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics
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Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
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