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Influence of 16S rRNA variable region on perceived diversity of marine microbial communities of the Northern North Atlantic.

08:00 EDT 25th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Influence of 16S rRNA variable region on perceived diversity of marine microbial communities of the Northern North Atlantic."

Marine microbes play essential roles in global energy and nutrient cycles. A primary method of determining their diversity and distribution is through sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from environmental samples. However, the perceived community composition may vary significantly based on differences in methodology, including choice of 16S variable region(s). This study investigated the influence of 16S variable region selection (V4-V5 or V6-V8) on perceived community composition and diversity for Bacteria, Archaea, and chloroplasts by tag-Illumina sequencing. We used 24 samples from the photic zone of the Scotian Shelf, northwest Atlantic, collected during a spring phytoplankton bloom. Taxonomic assignment and community composition varied greatly depending on the choice of variable regions while observed patterns of beta diversity were reproducible between variable regions. V4-V5 was considered the preferred variable region for future studies based on its superior recognition of Archaea, which has received little attention in bloom dynamics. The V6-V8 region captured more of the bacterial diversity, including the abundant SAR11 clades and, to a lesser extent, that of chloroplasts. However, the magnitude of difference between variable regions for Bacteria and chloroplast was less than for Archaea.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: FEMS microbiology letters
ISSN: 1574-6968
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.

A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.

The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.

Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.

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