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Most bilaterian animals excrete toxic metabolites through specialized organs, such as nephridia and kidneys, which share morphological and functional correspondences. In contrast, the excretory mechanisms in non-nephrozoans are largely unknown, and therefore the reconstruction of ancestral excretory mechanisms is problematic. Here, we investigated the excretory mode of members of the Xenacoelomorpha, the sister group to Nephrozoa, and Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria. By combining gene expression, inhibitor experiments, and exposure to varying environmental ammonia conditions, we show that both Xenacoelomorpha and Cnidaria are able to excrete across digestive-associated tissues. However, although the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis seems to use diffusion as its main excretory mode, the two xenacoelomorphs use both active transport and diffusion mechanisms. Based on these results, we propose that digestive-associated tissues functioned as excretory sites before the evolution of specialized organs in nephrozoans. We conclude that the emergence of a compact, multiple-layered bilaterian body plan necessitated the evolution of active transport mechanisms, which were later recruited into the specialized excretory organs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS biology
Medicarpin, one of the active constituents isolated from the extract of Butea monosperma, has been shown to have various pharmacological activities including potent anti-osteoporotic properties. The a...
Cadmium (Cd) contamination of the soil is one of the most serious environmental problems of agricultural production. Phytoremediation has attracted increasing attention because it can safely remove th...
Lower extremity paralysis has become common in recent years, and robots have been developed to help patients recover from it. This paper presents such a robotic system that allows for two working mode...
ShenMai Injection (SMI) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been extensively applied in the treatment of coronary artery disease and tumor for many years. However, there is still lack of deep r...
The d1T-MoS2, distorted-1T group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides monolayer, is considered as promising atomically thin out-of-plane ferroelectric materials. We study the origin of the ferroelectr...
In healthy humans, the intestinal mucosa acts as an absorption organ and a defensive barrier preventing the passage of toxic substances from the intestinal lumen to the blood stream. Malnu...
The primary aim of the study is to investigate personal attitudes regarding mode of delivery among both medical health care professionals and non-professionals. We are also investigating w...
Nowadays, the recommended approach for decision-making for oncology patients is based on multidisciplinary meetings (MDT). However, the quality of decision-making during MDT depends on oth...
Incidence of digestive neuroendocrine tumors are increasing. Analysis of individual microbiota is a way to explore new neoplastic mechanisms, tumor identification and therapeutic orientati...
Creation of a collection of blood samples that will be collected before and then under treatment in patients with digestive adenocarcinoma during the 1st and 2nd metastatic line and which,...
An Eph family receptor found abundantly in tissues of epithelial origin. It is expressed in a diverse array of tissues during embryonic development, suggesting that it may play a role in embryogenesis. In adult tissues high levels of the receptor are expressed in the LUNG; SKIN; SMALL INTESTINE and OVARY.
An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Digestive system disorder where a particular food irritates the digestive tract or cannot be properly digested (i.e., due to a lack of a digestive enzyme). It differs from FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY which is an immune system disorder, usually due to specific proteins in food. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/problem-foods-is-it-an-allergy-or-intolerance.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...