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Cost-effectiveness of treating multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: A systematic review.

08:00 EDT 1st June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Cost-effectiveness of treating multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: A systematic review."

Tuberculosis (TB), along with the human immunodeficiency virus, is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases. Its prevalence has rendered the treatment of drug-resistant TB a major public health problem that threatens the progress made in TB care and control worldwide. Our objectives were to conduct a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of treatment for multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB/XDR-TB) and to synthesise available data from scientific research.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
ISSN: 0030-9982
Pages: S131-S136

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.

Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.

Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.

Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.

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