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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems of bacteria and archaea have engineered for genome editing in eukaryotic genomes. In such CRISPR/Cas9 system, CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) were engineered into a simplified single guide RNA (sgRNA). Cas9 and sgRNA form a complex that scans through genome for the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence (predominantly 5'-NGG-3') and for the sequence (ca. 18-20 nucleotides) complementary to the sgRNA, leading to double stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) that are exploited for site-specific DNA alterations (Jinek et al., 2012). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Name: Plant biotechnology journal
The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans is not only a clinically important pathogen, but also a model organism for studying microbial pathogenesis and eukaryotic biology. One key factor behind its r...
CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated Cas9)-based gene editing is a robust tool for functional genomics research and breeding programs in various crop...
The evolution and practical breeding of crops depend on genetic variations. Conventionally, these variations result from natural mutations or physical and chemical mutagenesis, both of which occur ran...
The discovery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system was a milestone for plant biotechnology enabling targeted mutagenesis with an unprecedented simplicity and accuracy. An abundant G-rich protospacer-adjacent mot...
pv. actinidiae (Psa) has emerged as a major bacterial pathogen of kiwifruit cultivation throughout the world. We aim to introduce a CRISPR-Cas9 system, a commonly used genome editing tool, into Psa. T...
This is an open-label and triple cohort study of the safety and efficacy of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 to possibly treat HPV Persistency and human cervical intraepithelial neoplasiaⅠwithout i...
The investigators performed this study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transplantation with CRISPR/Cas9 CCR5 gene modified CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells for patients ...
Multiple solid tumors have positive targets of mesothelin expressed on the surfaces of the tumor cells, we use the technique of CRISPR-Cas9 to knocked out the PD-1 and TCR of chimeric anti...
Research has demonstrated that there is a relationship between malnourishment and insufficient production of pancreatic enzymes, such as α-amylase which digests starch into glucose. Starc...
Given the interest in gluten-free foods and discovering dietary means to prevent metabolic disorders, this study was designed to determine the glycemic responses of four (4) grains and flo...
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alternative medicine are whole medical systems that did not fit with conventional medicine as they have completely different philosophies and ideas on the causes of disease, methods of diagnosis and approaches to treatment. Although often overlapping, co...