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Maternal smoking during pregnancy represents a major public health concern increasing the risk for low birth weight, congenital anomalies, preterm birth, fetal mortality, and morbidity. In an effort to diminish adverse developmental effects of exposure to cigarette smoking, pregnant women, and women of reproductive age, are increasingly turning to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as e-cigarettes, as an alternative. Given that health risks associated with ENDS use during pregnancy are largely unknown, there is an acute need to determine risks vs. benefits of e-cigarette use by pregnant women. While the most recent Surgeon General's Report on the "Health Consequences of Smoking" states that "the evidence is sufficient to infer that nicotine adversely affects maternal and fetal health during pregnancy, contributing to multiple adverse outcomes," it remains unclear whether use of ENDS represents a "safer alternative" to tobacco smoking during pregnancy. This is due, in part, to the lack of sufficient and conclusive evidence concerning whether or not maternal e-cigarette use adversely affects embryonic/fetal development. While several recent developmental studies have challenged the safety of nicotine inhalation via ENDS, the true risks of smoking e-cigarettes during the first trimester of pregnancy-the period of organogenesis-are largely unknown. Moreover, evidence is emerging that even nicotine-free e-cigarette aerosols may harm the developing conceptus, suggesting that components of e-cigarette liquid, including flavorings, may be developmentally toxicity. Focused human epidemiological analyses, and carefully designed animal studies are critically needed to address the question of the safety of ENDS use during pregnancy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Birth defects research
Application of a multi-layer systems toxicology framework for in vitro assessment of the biological effects of Classic Tobacco e-liquid and its corresponding aerosol using an e-cigarette device with MESH™ technology.
We previously proposed a systems toxicology framework for in vitro assessment of e-liquids. The framework starts with the first layer aimed at screening the potential toxicity of e-liquids, followed b...
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette; e-cig) use has grown exponentially in recent years despite their unknown health effects. E-cig aerosols are now known to contain hazardous chemical compounds, includ...
The draft Step 2 ICH S5(R3) guideline includes an exposure-based endpoint as an option for selecting the high-dose in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies. To help determine an appropriate ...
The use of e-cigarettes is increasing in the US but there is still a paucity of research on the metabolic effects of e-cigarette use. The goal of this work was to determine the association between e-c...
Representatives of applied science (e.g. governmental organizations, academia, and industry) met to discuss the progress towards a harmonized human health risk assessment in developmental toxicology o...
Limited studies have evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impact on indoor air quality. Also limited are the studies regarding direct passive ex...
Objective: To investigate in real-life conditions passive exposure to aerosols from the use of e-cigarettes among people who cohabit with e-cigarette users. A secondary objective is to inv...
This study will examine the level of toxicity of e-cigarette use compared to smokers and nonsmokers including inflammation markers, toxicant and carcinogen exposure. Additionally, the stud...
This study will compare nicotine delivery and smoking behaviour in healthy subjects using several combustible cigarette prototypes containing different ingredients which are commonly used ...
To characterise the physical parameters (number concentration, size distribution and their trajectories) of aerosols (droplets) generated in high risk procedures.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The SMOKING of CIGARETTES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...
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Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...