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Multivalent binding interactions are commonly found throughout biology to enhance weak monovalent binding such as between glycoligands and protein receptors. Designing multivalent polymers to bind to viruses and toxic proteins is a promising avenue for inhibiting their attachment and subsequent infection of cells. Several studies have focused on oligomeric multivalent inhibitors and how changing parameters such as ligand shape, size, linker length, and flexibility affect binding. However, experimental studies of how larger structural parameters of multivalent polymers, such as degree of polymerization, affect binding avidity to targets have mixed results, with some finding an improvement with longer polymers and some finding no effect. Here, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to provide a theoretical understanding of how the degree of polymerization affects the binding avidity of multivalent polymers. We show that longer polymers increase binding avidity to multivalent targets but reach a limit in binding avidity at high degrees of polymerization. We also show that when interacting with multiple targets simultaneously, longer polymers are able to use intertarget interactions to promote clustering and improve binding efficiency. We expect our results to narrow the design space for optimizing the structure and effectiveness of multivalent inhibitors as well as be useful to understand biological design strategies for multivalent binding.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biophysical journal
Multidomain proteins often interact through several independent binding sites connected by disordered linkers. The architecture of such linkers affect avidity by modulating the effective concentration...
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Binding of mannose presenting macromolecules to the protein receptor concanavalin A (ConA) is investigated by means of single-molecule atomic force spectroscopy (SMFS) in combination with dynamic ligh...
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This Phase 1b will describe the safety and immunogenicity of 2 multivalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations in healthy Japanese adults in the United States.
This is a Phase 2, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study with a 3-arm parallel design. Healthy 2-month old infants (42 to 98 days of age) with no history of pneumococcal vaccinat...
The objective of this work is to evaluate, from volunteers viewpoint, the usability, comfort, appearance, weight, superficial temperature, and other characteristics of a polymeric plate de...
This study will generate new information on how to optimise brain targets with ECT stimulation.
A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Multivalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Infants
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...