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A growing number of patients are seeking answers for their health concerns online. This study assesses the reliability, quality, and readability of online materials patients have access to through the Internet and evaluates the social media presence of information providers. An online search was conducted for facial rejuvenation by utilizing three ubiquitously used web search engines: Google, Bing, and Yahoo. The first 25 result pages were collected from each search engine, and exclusionary criteria were applied to exclude online stores and advertisements. Website reliability and quality were assessed via the DISCERN method. Readability was measured through six measurements: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Gunning Fox score, SMOG index, Coleman Liau index, and automated readability index. Social media presence and profile followers on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram were determined to gauge social media presence. Exclusionary criteria yielded 41 unique websites, with the majority of websites authored by physicians (54%) followed by professional organizations (19%). The DISCERN method demonstrated that journal websites yielded the highest overall quality (4.00) and physician websites yielded the lowest (2.72). Readability analysis demonstrated that online forums proved the most challenging to read, and encyclopedia articles were the least challenging. Physician websites maintained the highest social media presence (95%) followed by professional organizations (75%). However, professional organizations had more social media followers in comparison to physician websites. Physician websites and professional organizations overwhelmingly command social media presence compared to other information providers and provide information with serious deficits in reliability and quality. A strong majority of online information also surpasses the health care literacy of patients. This poses a serious concern for physicians who need to provide and guide patients to high quality and reliable information.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Facial plastic surgery : FPS
To highlight the challenges and lessons learned in tooth-bearing maxillomandibular facial allotransplantation.
Individuals with obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD) may have difficulties in using feedback from rewarding and punishing experiences to optimally guide future decisions. The current aim was to examin...
The supraorbital keyhole approach through an eyebrow incision has been a potentially less invasive approach as an alternative to the standard pterional craniotomy. We aimed to review procedures for an...
In an inhomogeneously illuminated photoacoustic image, important information like vascular geometry is not readily available when only the initial pressure is reconstructed. To obtain the desired info...
Description of recruitment methods and lessons learned in a randomized controlled trial of underserved patients using an integrative medical group visits intervention.
This study aimed to test the effects of a learned resourcefulness interveniton program on the learned resourcefulness, caregiver burden, quality of life for older family caregivers.
The purpose of this study is to determine if Reinforcement-Induced Movement Therapy (RIMT), a novel rehabilitation method that augments visuomotor feedback of movements of the patient in v...
Persons undergoing cardiac rehabilitation often have difficulties transferring the learned health behaviors into their daily routine which decreases their health status. Computer-based tai...
This study evaluates the effects of emotional status on coronary flow in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Patients whom undergoing elective coronary angiography will fulf...
Patients seen in the Orthopaedic Trauma clinic will be asked to consent for potential video/picture recording using the Google Glass device during their visit with the orthopaedic surgeon ...
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Neurological process involving the conversion of learned information into long-term memory.