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In this manuscript, we summarize published results showing that obesity and aging are inflammatory conditions associated with serious health problems, increased risk for disease and death. We show that fat mass increases with age and represents a major contributor to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We summarize the effects of age on the adipose tissue (AT), related to the abundance, distribution, cellular composition, endocrine signaling and function of the tissue. The AT is an immunological tissue, with several hallmarks of innate and adaptive immune responses. We show that in both mice and humans, the AT is heavily infiltrated by immune cells that have receptors for pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines secreted by the adipocytes and also by the immune cells that have infiltrated the AT. We also show that the AT provides an environment for the secretion of IgG antibodies with anti-self (autoimmune) reactivity. As we have previously shown, this is due to the release of self antigens following cell death due to hypoxia, as well as to the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the enzyme of class switch recombination, and the transcription factor T-bet by the resident B cells, which also express the membrane marker CD11c, both involved in the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies. We show data in support of the AT as a tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO), showing the examples of TLOs that develop within the AT, such as fat-associated lymphoid clusters and milky spots, as well as artery TLOs that develop in the adventitia areas of the aorta.
This article was published in the following journal.
Tertiary lymphoid organs named also tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) often occur at sites of autoimmune inflammation, organ transplantation and cancer. Although the mechanisms for their formation/fu...
This study examined the longitudinal associations between genetic risk, change in diet quality, and change in visceral adipose tissue (ΔVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ΔSAT), and perica...
Dysfunction of the adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated diabetes. It is characterized by dysregulated adipokine secretion, which contributes to insulin resistance of key metaboli...
Obesity in humans is associated with poorer health outcomes after infections compared with non-obese individuals. Here, we examined the effects of white adipose tissue and obesity on T cell responses...
The secondary lymphoid tissues (LTs), lymph nodes (LNs) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) are considered reservoirs for HIV. Antiretrovirals (ARVs) have lower penetration into LT. In vitro mod...
The growth hormone (GH )axis has important influences on adipose tissue. GH may have a novel effect to reduce macrophage yet increase adipocyte inflammation in adipose tissue along with re...
A growing body of work done over the past few decades has established that adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of metabolic and immunological factors co...
In health,adipose tissue stores fat from the diet. If the fat tissue stops storing dietary fat then this increases the chance of it being stored in the liver, which is related to increased...
Tissue factor is the main activator of coagulation cascades. Excessive tissue factor expression is made responsible of thrombosis in a number of clinical situations including thrombosis in...
The objective is to analyse the changes in the adipose tissue hystological features and the adipogenesis gene expression and related to inflammation after 48 and 96 weeks after the change ...
Brown fat-like adipose tissue that develops in WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE from non-MYOGENIC REGULATORY FACTOR 5 expressing cell lineage.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...