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The last two decades have seen a re-emergence of surgery for intractable psychiatric disease, in large part due to increased use of deep brain stimulation. The development of more precise, image-guided, less invasive interventions has improved the safety of these procedures, even though the relative merits of modulation at various targets remain under investigation. With an increase in the number and type of interventions for modulating mood/anxiety circuits, the need for biomarkers to guide surgeries and predict treatment response is as critical as ever. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a long history in clinical neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and functional neurosurgery, but has limited prior usage in psychiatric surgery. MEDLINE, Embase, and Psyc-INFO searches on the use of EEG in guiding psychiatric surgery yielded 611 articles, which were screened for relevance and quality. We synthesized three important themes. First, considerable evidence supports EEG as a biomarker for response to various surgical and non-surgical therapies, but large-scale investigations are lacking. Second, intraoperative EEG is likely more valuable than surface EEG for guiding target selection, but comes at the cost of greater invasiveness. Finally, EEG may be a promising tool for objective functional feedback in developing "closed-loop" psychosurgeries, but more systematic investigations are required.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
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A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Work consisting of a set of statements, directions, or principles presenting current or future rules or policy. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, organizations such as professional societies or governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form, but it is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any discipline or activity. This concept relates to the general conduct and administration of health care activities rather than to specific decisions for a particular clinical condition. For that aspect, PRACTICE GUIDELINE is available.
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