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The tumor matrix together with inflammation and autophagy are crucial regulators of cancer development. Embedded in the tumor stroma are numerous proteoglycans which, in their soluble form, act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). By interacting with innate immune receptors, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), DAMPs autonomously trigger aseptic inflammation and can regulate autophagy. Biglycan, a known danger proteoglycan, can regulate the cross-talk between inflammation and autophagy by evoking a switch between pro-inflammatory CD14 and pro-autophagic CD44 co-receptors for TLRs. Thus, these novel mechanistic insights provide some explanation for the plethora of reports indicating that the same matrix-derived DAMP acts either as a promoter or suppressor of tumor growth. In this review we will summarize and critically discuss the role of the matrix-derived DAMPs biglycan, hyaluronan, and versican in regulating the TLR-, CD14- and CD44-signaling dialogue between inflammation and autophagy with particular emphasis on cancer development.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in cancer biology
It is well established that biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, acts as an extracellular matrix-derived danger signal in its soluble form. By binding to innate immunity Toll-like receptors (T...
In response to GM-CSF or M-CSF, macrophages (MΦ) can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory properties, respectively. Given the importance of CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS...
The prominent role of CD44 in tumor cell signaling together with its establishment as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for various tumor entities imply a key role for CD44 in CSC functional properties....
CD44 isoforms are often upregulated in gastric cancer and have been associated with increased metastatic potential and poor survival. To evaluate the functional impact of O-glycan truncation on CD44 w...
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A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...