Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Microbial exposures can define an individual's basal immune state. Cohousing specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice with pet store mice, which harbor numerous infectious microbes, results in global changes to the immune system, including increased circulating phagocytes and elevated inflammatory cytokines. How these differences in the basal immune state influence the acute response to systemic infection is unclear. Cohoused mice exhibit enhanced protection from virulent Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection, but increased morbidity and mortality to polymicrobial sepsis. Cohoused mice have more TLR2 and TLR4 phagocytes, enhancing recognition of microbes through pattern-recognition receptors. However, the response to a TLR2 ligand is muted in cohoused mice, whereas the response to a TLR4 ligand is greatly amplified, suggesting a basis for the distinct response to Listeria monocytogenes and sepsis. Our data illustrate how microbial exposure can enhance the immune response to unrelated challenges but also increase the risk of immunopathology from a severe cytokine storm.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell reports
The innate immune system has evolved to recognize diverse microbes and destroy them. At the same time, microbial pathogens undermine immunity to cause disease. Here, we highlight recent advances in un...
Fluoride is known to affect the inflammatory process and autoregulation of immune responses, but the molecular mechanism by which fluoride causes innate immune injury remain largely unknown. Also, stu...
Severe invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection evades anti-bacterial immunity by attenuating the cellular components of innate immune responses. However, this loss of protection is compensated ...
Oxylipins, or oxygenated lipids, are universal signaling molecules across all kingdoms of life. These molecules, either produced by microbial pathogens or their mammalian host, regulate inflammation d...
Although infectious disease risk from recreational exposure to waterborne pathogens has been an active area of research for decades, beach sand is a relatively unexplored habitat for the persistence o...
The effect of microbial exposure on healthy human subjects will be investigated. Changes in cytokine and IgE and vaccine response will be measured. The hypothesis is that microbial exposur...
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains at epidemic levels globally. Innate and adaptive immune responses evolve as protective mechanisms against mycobacterial infection in human...
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an important tool for the assessment of the efficacy of novel malaria vaccines and drugs prior to field trials. CHMI also allows for the evalua...
Prenatal supplementation with fish oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is widely recommended in Canada. The aim of this observational, prospective cohort study is to determin...
Airborne transmission represents one of the most rapidly spreading and dangerous dissemination mechanisms for pathogens. Public health strategies to prevent and control the often explosive...
Pathogens' molecules with specific sequence patterns that are recognized by PATTERN RECOGNITION RECEPTORS. They include microbial DNA, double-stranded RNA, surface glycoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans, and lipoteichoic acid.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
The immunological phenomenon by which exposure to some organisms or vaccines can profoundly alter the host's response to subsequent exposure to unrelated (heterologous) organisms or vaccines.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...