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Microbial Exposure Enhances Immunity to Pathogens Recognized by TLR2 but Increases Susceptibility to Cytokine Storm through TLR4 Sensitization.

08:00 EDT 13th August 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Microbial Exposure Enhances Immunity to Pathogens Recognized by TLR2 but Increases Susceptibility to Cytokine Storm through TLR4 Sensitization."

Microbial exposures can define an individual's basal immune state. Cohousing specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice with pet store mice, which harbor numerous infectious microbes, results in global changes to the immune system, including increased circulating phagocytes and elevated inflammatory cytokines. How these differences in the basal immune state influence the acute response to systemic infection is unclear. Cohoused mice exhibit enhanced protection from virulent Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection, but increased morbidity and mortality to polymicrobial sepsis. Cohoused mice have more TLR2 and TLR4 phagocytes, enhancing recognition of microbes through pattern-recognition receptors. However, the response to a TLR2 ligand is muted in cohoused mice, whereas the response to a TLR4 ligand is greatly amplified, suggesting a basis for the distinct response to Listeria monocytogenes and sepsis. Our data illustrate how microbial exposure can enhance the immune response to unrelated challenges but also increase the risk of immunopathology from a severe cytokine storm.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cell reports
ISSN: 2211-1247
Pages: 1729-1743.e5

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