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Plants continuously need to adapt to their environment and prioritize either growth or defense responses to secure survival and reproduction. Trade-offs between growth and defense are often attributed to the allocation of energy for growth to adaptation responses. Still, the exact mechanisms underlying growth and defense trade-offs are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the growth-related transcription factor HOMOLOG OF BEE2 INTERACTING WITH IBH 1 (HBI1) regulates apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by differentially controlling the expression of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and peroxidases (POXs). The HBI1 target genes RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG A (RbohA) and RbohC have contrasting effects on the regulation of cell size. In addition, the HBI1-controlled NOXs and POXs oppositely regulate susceptibility toward Pseudomonas syringae. Our findings reveal that the incompatibility between growth and defense programs can be attributed to the way apoplastic ROS homeostasis is modulated during both processes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell reports
Prey species are often non-randomly distributed along predator gradients but according to how they trade off growth against predation risk. The foraging-mediated growth/predation risk trade-off is wel...
This paper represents a new proposed trade model of "Intercountries Trade Force (ITF)" which is inspired by Intermolecular Interaction Forces in chemical sciences, and has potential to compensate for ...
With development of globalization, the geographic separation of production caused consumption of a region was linked to pollution emitted by another region. In this process, dramatic growth of CO emis...
Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding TET DNA dioxygenase occur frequently in hematopoietic malignancy, but rarely in solid tumors which instead commonly have reduced activity. The impact of de...
Direct and indirect defenses are predicted to trade-off due to costs associated with redundancy in plant defense, but the factors mediating a plant's position along this trade-off axis are unknown. We...
This will be a double blind, two-arm, parallel-group, stratified (for gender and centre), randomised, controlled, multicentre study in participants aged 7-10 years (yrs), inclusive. The ai...
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an important tool for the assessment of the efficacy of novel malaria vaccines and drugs prior to field trials. CHMI also allows for the evalua...
This project investigates whether exposure to the World Trade Center Attack is a risk factor for liver injury.
This study will for the first time systematically investigate the immune responses in an elderly cohort challenged with a well-defined RSV inoculum. With a global aging population and cont...
It has been reported that volatile anesthetics preconditioning mediates protection of organ via microRNA. We want to study on the effects of isoflurane preconditioning on expression of mic...
An SH2 domain-containing non-receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates signal transduction downstream of a variety of receptors including B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. It functions in both INNATE IMMUNITY and ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY and also mediates signaling in CELL ADHESION; OSTEOGENESIS; PLATELET ACTIVATION; and vascular development.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
The status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised. The slave trade is all acts involved in the capture, acquisition or disposal of persons with intent to reduce them to enslavement; all acts involved in the acquisition of enslaved persons with a view to selling or exchanging them; all acts of disposal by sale or exchange of persons acquired with a view to being sold or exchanged, and, in general, every act of trade or transport of slaves. ( from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/slaveryen.pdf accessed 10/18/2012)
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also ...