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For many years, major differences in morphology, motility, and mechanical characteristics have been observed between transformed cancer and normal cells. In this review, we consider these differences as linked to different states of normal and transformed cells that involve distinct mechanosensing and motility pathways. There is a strong correlation between repeated tissue healing and/or inflammation and the probability of cancer, both of which involve growth in adult tissues. Many factors are likely needed to enable growth, including the loss of rigidity sensing, but recent evidence indicates that microRNAs have important roles in causing the depletion of growth-suppressing proteins. One microRNA, , is overexpressed in many different tissues during both healing and cancer. Normal cells can become transformed by the depletion of cytoskeletal proteins that results in the loss of mechanosensing, particularly rigidity sensing. Conversely, the transformed state can be reversed by the expression of cytoskeletal proteins-without direct alteration of hormone receptor levels. In this review, we consider the different stereotypical forms of motility and mechanosensory systems. A major difference between normal and transformed cells involves a sensitivity of transformed cells to mechanical perturbations. Thus, understanding the different mechanical characteristics of transformed cells may enable new approaches to treating wound healing and cancer. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 35 is October 7, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of cell and developmental biology
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Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
Virulence factors of pathogenic plant bacteria, such as XANTHOMONAS species, that bind to specific sequences in the PROMOTER REGIONS of host DNA to induce transcription of specific host genes. Variations in the DNA binding domain of TALE family members account for the variations in DNA specificity. The TALE DNA-binding domains are used in various GENETIC TECHNIQUES by fusing them with various DNA modifying enzymes to detect and manipulate sequence-specific targeted DNA sites.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
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Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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