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In this paper we describe the identification of two classes of contaminants: sulfonated-PCBs and hydroxy-sulfonated-PCBs. This is the first published report of the detection of these chemicals in soil. They were found, along with hydroxy-PCBs, in soil samples coming from a site historically contaminated by the industrial production of PCBs and in background soils. Sulfonated-PCB levels were approximately 0.4-0.8% of the native PCB levels in soils, and about twice the levels of hydroxy-sulfonated-PCBs and hydroxy-PCBs. The identification of sulfonated-PCBs was confirmed by the chemical synthesis of reference standards, obtained through the sulfonation of an industrial mixture of PCBs. We then reviewed the literature to investigate for the potential agents responsible for the sulfonation. Furthermore, we predicted their physico-chemical properties and indicate that, given the low pKa of sulfonated- and hydroxy-sulfonated-PCBs, they possess negligible volatility, supporting the case for in situ formation from PCBs. This study shows the need of understanding their origin, their role in the degradation path of PCBs and their fate, as well as their (still unknown) toxicological and ecotoxicological properties.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
As sulfonated aromatic compounds are widely used in industry, they have frequently been detected in aquatic environments. This study evaluated the degradation and mineralization of 2,6-naphthalenedisu...
Sulfonated hypercrosslinked polymers based on 4,4'-bis(chloromethyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (BCMBP) were synthesized via metal-free (SHCP-1) and conventional Lewis acid-catalyzed (SHCP-2) Friedel-Crafts alkyla...
Resorcinarenes are macrocyclic molecules that can bind different molecules in a supramolecular fashion. There are some sulfonated water-soluble derivatives that have been investigated to bind proteins...
Progesterone derivatives containing the D' additional cyclohexane ring in the 16α,17α-positions of steroid core (pregna-D'-pentaranes) exhibited high in vitro and in vivo selective progestogenic act...
The direct hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid was studied here in the presence of new biomass-derived sulfonated carbonaceous solid acid ca...
We intend to examine the effect of a commercially available nutritional supplement, Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate(HMB) on whole-body responses to a sugar load.
Trace elements, bioactive secondary metabolites and vitamins are among the most important quality parameters in plants. Yet, very little information is available on their content, bioavail...
Introduction: Neuromotor losses are those that most affect the functionality of the elderly person. One of the preventive measures is the habit of practicing exercises regularly. Objective...
Mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole (ABZ) to school-age and pre-school-age children is the currently recommended strategy for controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in ...
We have recently shown that postprandial sensations correlate with changes in circulating metabolites after a meal ingestion; however this phenomenon was demonstrated with a meal load up t...
(13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.
An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 188.8.131.52.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)