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The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii, is a major pest on Capsicum species. Apart from natural spread, there is a risk of spread via international pepper trade. In the Netherlands, a pepper weevil outbreak occurred in 2012 and affected six greenhouses producing different sweet pepper varieties. The following year, a pepper weevil outbreak occurred in Italy. To trace the origin of the Dutch outbreak and to establish if the Dutch and Italian outbreaks were linked, we determined the mitogenomes of A. eugenii specimens collected at outbreak locations, and compared these with specimens from the native area, and other areas where the pest was introduced either by natural dispersal or via trade. The circular 17,257 bp A. eugenii mitogenome comprises thirteen mitochondrial genes typically found in insect species. Intra-species variation of these mitochondrial genes revealed four main mitochondrial lineages encompassing 41 haplotypes. The highest diversity was observed for specimens from its presumed native area (i.e. Mexico). The Dutch outbreak specimens represented three highly similar haplotypes, suggesting a single introduction of the pest. The major Dutch haplotype was also found in two specimens from New Jersey. As the Netherlands does not have pepper trade with New Jersey, it is likely that the specimens sampled in New Jersey and those sampled in the Netherlands originate from a shared source that was not included in this study. In addition, our analysis shows that the Italian and Dutch outbreaks were not linked. The mitochondrial genome is a useful tool to trace outbreak populations and the methodology presented in this paper could prove valuable for other invasive pest species, such as the African fruit moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta and emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.
ANTHRAX outbreak that occurred in 1979 and was associated with a research facility in Sverdlovsk, in the Ural mountain region of central RUSSIA. Most victims worked or lived in a narrow zone extending from the facility. The zone of anthrax-caused livestock mortality paralleled the northerly wind that prevailed shortly before the outbreak. It was concluded that an escape of ANTHRAX caused outbreak.
A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A subfamily of POXVIRIDAE comprising poxviruses infecting insects including members of COLEOPTERA; DIPTERA; LEPIDOPTERA; and ORTHOPTERA.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...