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Enteric fevers, caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (ST), Paratyphi A (PA) and Paratyphi B (PB), are life-threatening illnesses exhibiting very similar clinical symptoms but with distinct epidemiologies, geographical distributions and susceptibilities to antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the host recognizes pathogens with high levels of homology, such as these bacterial serovars, remain poorly understood. Using a three-dimensional organotypic model of the human intestinal mucosa and PA, PB, and ST, we observed significant differences in the secretion patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines elicited by these serovars. These cytokines/chemokines were likely to be co-regulated and influenced the function of epithelial cells, such as the production of IL-8. We also found differing levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration among various infection conditions that either included or excluded lymphocytes and macrophages (Mϕ), strongly suggesting feedback mechanisms among these cells. Blocking experiments showed that IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CCL3 cytokines were involved in the differential regulation of migration patterns. We conclude that the crosstalk among the lymphocytes, Mϕ, PMN and epithelial cells is cytokine/chemokine-dependent and bacterial-serotype specific, and plays a pivotal role in orchestrating the functional efficiency of the innate cells and migratory characteristics of the leukocytes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
In most (if not all) solid tumors, malignant cells are outnumbered by their non-malignant counterparts, including immune, endothelial and stromal cells. However, while the mechanisms whereby cancer ce...
Leukocytes are a large population of cells spread within most tissues in the body. These cells may be either sessile (called as resident cells) or circulating leukocytes, which travel long journeys in...
In this issue, Egelkamp et al. describe a role for kidney parenchymal cells in regulation of alloimmune responses. The authors hypothesized that "back" or reciprocal signaling is a consequence of bid...
Intercellular communication mediated by cytokines is the main mechanism by which cells of the immune system talk to each other. Many aspects of cytokine signalling in the immune system have been explo...
Susceptibility to coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remains increased despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). To elucidate mechanisms involved in immune reconstitution...
Prospective registry study for children and young adults with severe immune cytopenias (persisting/chronic immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and Evans syndrome) to impr...
This study includes patients with relapsed acute leukemia who have previously been treated with standard treatment that is still present and there is no curative treatment option available...
The aim of this trial is to find out if immune responses to HIV can be boosted in individuals who start medicines soon after being infected. If immune responses can be boosted to the viru...
The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms whereby lung function is decreased in COPD. The hypothesis is that in diseases such as COPD, inflammatory cells including neutrophil...
This study will evaluate immune responses against cytomegalovirus (CMV). About 80 percent of adults have been exposed to this virus. CMV typically remains dormant (inactive) in the body, c...
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
A conserved AMINO ACID SEQUENCE located in the intracellular domains of a family of transmembrane proteins involved in various IMMUNE RESPONSES. The CONSENSUS SEQUENCE of this motif is YXXL(or I)X(6-8)YXXL(or I) (where X denotes any amino acid). When phosphorylated ITAM motifs provide docking sites for PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASES of the Syk family thus forming signaling complexes which lead to activation of immune responses.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...