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In 1994, combined active and passive screening reported 1469 cases from the historic Gambian Human African Trypanosomiasis (gHAT) foci of West Nile, Uganda. Since 2011 systematic active screening has stopped and there has been reliance on passive screening. During 2014, passive screening alone detected just nine cases. In the same year a tsetse control intervention was expanded to cover the main gHAT foci in West Nile to curtail transmission of gHAT contributing to the elimination of gHAT as a public health problem in the area. It is known that sole reliance on passive screening is slow to detect cases and can underestimate the actual true number. We therefore undertook an active screening programme designed to test the efficacy of these interventions against gHAT transmission and clarify disease status. Screening was conducted in 28 randomly selected villages throughout the study area, aiming to sample all residents. Whole blood from 10,963 participants was analysed using CATT and 97 CATT suspects (0.9%) were evaluated with microscopy and trypanolysis. No confirmed cases were found providing evidence that the gHAT prevention programmes in West Nile have been effective. Results confirm gHAT prevalence in the study area of West Nile is below the elimination threshold (1 new case / 10,000 population), making elimination on course across this study area if status is maintained. The findings of this study can be used to guide future HAT and tsetse management in other gHAT foci, where reduced caseloads necessitate a shift from active to passive screening.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
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A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the tsetse fly. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A nation located in East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia. Independence from SUDAN was attained on 9 July 2011. The capital is Juba. (from CIA. World Factbook, 2014.)
State bounded on the north by Maryland and West Virginia, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, the Chesapeake Bay and Maryland, and on the south by North Carolina and Tennessee, and on the west by Kentucky and West Virginia.
A state bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, on the east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Virginia and West Virginia, and on the west by West Virginia.
Tropical Medicine is the study of diseases more commonly found in tropical regions than elsewhere. Examples of these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filaria...
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