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Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) rhodesiense is the cause of the acute form of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in eastern and southern African countries. There is some evidence that there is diversity in the disease progression of T.b. rhodesiense in different countries. HAT in Malawi is associated with a chronic haemo-lymphatic stage infection compared to other countries, such as Uganda, where the disease is acute with more marked neurological impairment. This has raised the question of the role of host genetic factors in infection outcomes. A candidate gene association study was conducted in the northern region of Malawi. This was a case-control study involving 202 subjects, 70 cases and 132 controls. All individuals were from one area; born in the area and had been exposed to the risk of infection since birth. Ninety-six markers were genotyped from 17 genes: IL10, IL8, IL4, HLA-G, TNFA, IL6, IFNG, MIF, APOL, HLA-A, IL1B, IL4R, IL12B, IL12R, HP, HPR, and CFH. There was a strong significant association with APOL1 G2 allele (p = 0.0000105, OR = 0.14, CI95 = [0.05-0.41], BONF = 0.00068) indicating that carriers of the G2 allele were protected against T.b. rhodesiense HAT. SNP rs2069845 in IL6 had raw p < 0.05, but did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction. There were no associations found with the other 15 candidate genes. Our finding confirms results from other studies that the G2 variant of APOL1 is associated with protection against T.b. rhodesiense HAT.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
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An ApoL protein highly expressed by the liver. It has anti-trypanosomal activity through its ability to permeabilize TRYPANOSOMA membranes. Mutations in the APOL1 gene are associated with type 4 FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS .
A hemoflagellate parasite affecting domestic and wild animals, as well as humans and invertebrates. Though it induces an immune response, it is non-pathogenic in humans and other vertebrates. It is cross-reactive with TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI and can thus cause false positives for CHAGAS DISEASE.
Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.
A disease of horses and donkeys caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The disease occurs in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
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Tropical Medicine is the study of diseases more commonly found in tropical regions than elsewhere. Examples of these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filaria...