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Anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy has improved survival for certain patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. However, the mechanisms of resistance to these agents have not been fully elucidated. We report the first combined analysis using RNA sequencing, whole-exome sequencing (WES), and flow cytometry of multiple tumor specimens over a 5-yr period for a patient undergoing anti-PD-L1 therapy. Initial sensitivity to anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy was associated with conversion to a basal molecular subtype and a rising tumor mutational burden. We found that as the tumor became more resistant to anti-PD-L1, the proportion of regulatory T cells and CD8 T cells expressing alternative immune checkpoints including CTLA-4, TIM-3, and LAG-3 increased. This suggests that alternative immune checkpoint upregulation may be one form of anti-PD-L1 resistance in urothelial carcinoma. These data support the concept of combined immune checkpoint blockade for urothelial carcinoma, a concept that is being evaluated in prospective clinical trials. PATIENT
In this study we characterized how a patient with metastatic urothelial cancer became resistant to anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. By tracking changes in protein and gene expression over time, we found that as urothelial carcinoma becomes resistant to PD-L1 blockade, additional immune checkpoints may be upregulated. These data support the concept of combined checkpoint blockade for urothelial carcinoma.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European urology oncology
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Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
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