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The Cdc42 GTPase plays a central role in polarity development in species ranging from yeast to humans. In budding yeast, a specific growth site is selected in the G1 phase. Rsr1, a Ras GTPase, interacts with Cdc42 and its associated proteins to promote polarized growth at the proper bud site. Yet how Rsr1 regulates cell polarization is not fully understood. Here, we show that Rsr1-GDP interacts with the scaffold protein Bem1 in early G1, likely hindering the role of Bem1 in Cdc42 polarization and polarized secretion. Consistent with these in vivo observations, mathematical modeling predicts that Bem1 is unable to promote Cdc42 polarization in early G1 in the presence of Rsr1-GDP. We find that a part of the Bem1 Phox homology domain, which overlaps with a region interacting with the exocyst component Exo70, is necessary for the association of Bem1 with Rsr1-GDP. Overexpression of the GDP-locked Rsr1 interferes with Bem1-dependent Exo70 polarization. We thus propose that Rsr1 functions in spatial and temporal regulation of polarity establishment by associating with distinct polarity factors in its GTP- and GDP-bound states.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular biology of the cell
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Homer proteins belong to a family of adaptor and scaffold proteins which include Homer1, Homer2 and Homer3. Homer1 and Homer2 play a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis, whereas Homer3 functions in stimulating changes in actin dynamics in neurons and T-cells. Homer proteins are best known as scaffold proteins at the post-synaptic density where they facilitate synaptic signaling. They function as a molecular switch in metabotropic glutamate receptor (MGluR) signaling, and are associated with human Fragile X syndrome.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
A cell adhesion molecule that contains extracellular immunoglobulin V and C2 domains. It mediates homophilic and heterophilic cell-cell adhesion independently of calcium, and acts as a tumor suppressor in NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER (NSCLC) cells. Its interaction with NATURAL KILLER CELLS is important for their cytotoxicity and its expression by MAST CELLS plays a role in their interaction with neurons; it may also function in synapse assembly, nerve growth and differentiation.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A family of proteins that are key components of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, where they function downstream of FRIZZLED RECEPTORS. They contain an N-terminal dishevelled-AXIN PROTEIN (DIX) domain, which mediates oligomerization; a central PDZ DOMAIN which binds to the frizzled receptor; and a C-terminal DEP domain which facilitates binding to the CELL MEMBRANE. Dishevelled proteins have important functions in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and establishing CELL POLARITY.