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: Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) are safe and effective refractive surgical procedures. However, complications include regression of treatment and iatrogenic keratectasia which can be severe and sight-threatening. In order to reduce these complications, simultaneous corneal cross-linking (CXL) is currently being added to these refractive procedures. This review analyses current long-term literature (≥ 1 year follow-up) on refractive surgery and simultaneous CXL (LASIK Xtra, PRK Xtra and SMILE Xtra) to determine its overall safety and efficacy. : A comprehensive literature search of various electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central and MEDLINE) was performed up to 9 February 2019. Efficacy and safety indices are calculated where possible. : Ten relevant studies were found for LASIK Xtra, 4 for PRK Xtra and 1 for SMILE Xtra. The total number of eyes included in this review was 1,189: 347 eyes for LASIK Xtra, 300 eyes for LASIK-only, 298 for PRK Xtra, 204 for PRK-only, 40 for SMILE Xtra and none for SMILE-only. Current studies show that refractive surgery and simultaneous CXL produces comparable or better results in terms of refractive and keratometric stability than refractive surgery alone. However, case reports of complications such as corneal ectasia, diffuse lamellar keratitis and central toxic keratopathy have also recently been published. : Simultaneous accelerated CXL and refractive surgery is effective for the treatment of myopia. However, it is as yet unclear if the additional CXL step reduces the incidence of iatrogenic keratectasia. Further long-term comparative studies would be useful in evaluating safety and efficacy of this procedure. More research should also be performed to titrate the UV-A irradiation settings for an optimal outcome.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current eye research
To evaluate 3-dimensional epithelial remodeling in patients undergoing myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) versus small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).
To analyze the acute effect of flap cut in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eyes and cap cut in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) eyes on corneal biomechanical properties of patients und...
Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most commonly performed laser refractive surgical technique worldwide for the treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. In recent years, small in...
Our aim was to retrospectively compare ReLEx Smile to femtosecondlaser-assisted LASIK (FsLASIK, femto-LASIK) in terms of safety, efficacy, stability as well as intraoperative complications. Comparable...
Femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) can make ultra-thin corneal flap accurately. MEL 90 excimer laser provides Triple-A ablation mode, which significantly reduces the amount of corneal tissue ...
The purpose of this study is to carry out an international multicenter trial to get more convincing and valuable results of the SMILE surgery and compare the outcomes between the SMILE sur...
This study evaluates the difference in results between eyes that have been treated wavefront optimized laser vision correction compared to eyes treated with topography-guided laser vision ...
Aim of the work is to compare the results of femtosecond assisted LASIK and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) as regards safety, efficacy and predictability. As a secondary outco...
In the past two decades, the femtosecond laser (FSL) technology has been introduced in the corneal refractive surgery filed, and brought a remarkable innovation. It can make tissue dissect...
The objective is to conduct a contralateral prospective clinical study to compare the safety, efficacy, and quality of vision of the STAAR Surgical Co. Toric Implantable Contact Lens TIC...
A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).
Qualified professionals trained in primary eye and vision care, including measurement of visual abilities, diagnosing disorders of the visual system and provision of treatment such as prescriptions for correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses and vision therapy.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; so-called "noninvasive surgery" usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being exci...
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that is devoted to the study and treatment of eye diseases. As well as mild visual defects correctable by lenses, ophthalmology is concerned with glaucoma, uveitis and other serious conditions affecting the eye, ...