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The choroid plexus (CP), composed of capillaries surrounded by a barrier epithelium, is the main producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CP epithelium regulates the transport of ions and water between the blood and the ventricles, contributing to CSF production and composition. Several studies suggest a connection between the cation channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) and transepithelial ion movement. TRPV4 is a non-selective, calcium permeable cation channel present in CP epithelia reported to be activated by cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Utilizing the PCP-R (porcine choroid plexus- Riems) cell line, we investigated the effects of various cytokines and inflammatory mediators on TRPV4-mediated activity. Select pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1) had inhibitory effects on TRPV4-stimulated transepithelial ion flux and permeability changes whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL-6) had none. Quantitative mRNA analysis showed that these cytokines had no effect on TRPV4 transcription levels. Inhibition of the transcription factor NF-κB, involved in the production and regulation of several inflammatory cytokines, inhibited TRPV4-mediated activity, suggesting a link between TRPV4 and cytokine production. Contrary to published studies, the pro-inflammatory mediator arachidonic acid (AA) had inhibitory rather than stimulatory effects on TRPV4-mediated responses. However, inhibition of AA metabolism also caused inhibitory effects on TRPV4, suggesting a complex interaction of AA and its metabolites in the regulation of TRPV4 activity. Together these data imply that TRPV4 activity is involved in the inflammatory response; it is negatively affected by pro-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, arachidonic acid metabolites, but not arachidonic acid itself, are positive regulators of TRPV4.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
There is clear evidence for carrier-mediated transport of prolactin into the brain, and it has been widely assumed that prolactin receptors (PRLRs) in the choroid plexus (ChP) might mediate this trans...
Adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland (AdCASG) is a rare and malignant tumor of the salivary glands. Albeit, metastatic lesions occur anecdotally in the choroid plexus and most rarely in cerebello-pont...
The object of this review is to describe the choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) occurring in the fetus and neonate with regard to clinical presentation, location, pathology, treatment, and outcome.
Genetic factors that influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk include mutations in TREM2 and allelic variants of Apolipoprotein E, influencing AD pathology in the general population and in Down syndrom...
Choroid plexus papilloma is an uncommon tumour of the central nervous system, accounting for less than 1% of all intracranial neoplasm. The usual locations are the lateral ventricle in infants and chi...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation is safe in adult patients with communicating hydrocephalus and risk factors for complications from t...
This is a "tissue banking and data review" research study that also has a "clinical" research part: - The goal of the tissue banking part of this study is to store tissue in a research...
To assess the safety of xenotransplantation of NTCELL [immunoprotected (alginate-encapsulated) choroid plexus cells] in patients with Parkinson's disease, assessed over the duration of the...
Vitamin D is known to have immune-modulator effects including suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression and regulation of immune cell activity. Vitamin D supplementation has been ...
The aim of the current pilot study is to investigate whether perioperative dysregulated systemic lipid mediator pathways (more specifically increased pro-inflammatory and decreased anti-in...
A usually benign neoplasm that arises from the cuboidal epithelium of the choroid plexus and takes the form of an enlarged CHOROID PLEXUS, which may be associated with oversecretion of CSF. The tumor usually presents in the first decade of life with signs of increased intracranial pressure including HEADACHES; ATAXIA; DIPLOPIA; and alterations of mental status. In children it is most common in the lateral ventricles and in adults it tends to arise in the fourth ventricle. Malignant transformation to choroid plexus carcinomas may rarely occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p667; DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072)
Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Cavity in each of the cerebral hemispheres derived from the cavity of the embryonic neural tube. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...