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Activation of calpain1 (CPN1) and calpain2 (CPN2) contributes to cardiac injury during ischemia (ISC) and reperfusion (REP). Complex I activity is decreased in heart mitochondria following ISC-REP. CPN1 and CPN2 are ubiquitous calpains that exist in both cytosol (cs-CPN1&2) and mitochondria (mit-CPN1&2). Recent work shows that the complex I subunit (NDUFS7) is a potential substrate of the mit-CPN1. We asked if ISC-REP led to decreased complex I activity via proteolysis of the NDUFS7 subunit via activation of mit-CPN1&2. Activation of cs-CPN1&2 decreases mitophagy in hepatocytes following ISC-REP. We asked if activation of cs-CPN1&2 impaired mitophagy in the heart following ISC-REP. Buffer-perfused rat hearts underwent 25 min. global ISC and 30 min. REP. MDL-28170 (MDL, 10 µM) was used to inhibit CPN1&2. Cytosol, subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM), and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated at the end of heart perfusion. Cardiac ISC-REP led to decreased complex I activity with a decrease in the content of NDUFS7 in both SSM and IFM. ISC-REP also resulted in a decrease in cytosolic beclin1 content, a key component of the autophagy pathway required to form autophagosomes. MDL treatment protected the contents of cytosolic beclin1 and mitochondrial NDUFS7 in hearts following ISC-REP. These results support that activation of both cytosolic and mitochondrial calpains impairs mitochondria during cardiac ISC-REP. Mitochondria localized calpains impair complex I via cleavage of a key subunit. Activation of cytosolic calpains contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction by impairing removal of the impaired mitochondria through depletion of a key component of the mitophagy process.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
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An adaptor protein, consisting of seven WD REPEATS along its length, that functions as a component of the MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN COMPLEX 1 and MTORC2 COMPLEX. It interacts directly with MTOR to enhance its kinase activity and stabilizes the MTOR-RPTOR PROTEIN interaction in nutrient-poor conditions, favoring RPTOR inhibition of MTOR activity.
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and can inhibit the growth of experimental tumors.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...