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Hepatocyte polarization is energy dependent. The establishment of polarization in collagen sandwich culture of hepatocytes requires utilization of lipid droplets and mitochondrial β-oxidation to supply ATPs. Multiple cellular pathways are involved in lipid droplet homeostasis; however, mechanistic insights of how hepatocytes utilize lipid droplets during polarization remain elusive. The current study investigated the effects of various pathways involved in lipid droplet homeostasis on bioenergetics during hepatocyte polarization. The results showed that hepatocytes were dependent on lipolysis of lipid droplets to release fatty acids for β-oxidation. Inhibition of lipolysis significantly decreased cellular fatty acid and ATP levels, and inhibited hepatocyte polarization, revealing that lipolysis was an important mechanism for providing energy for hepatocyte polarization. The results also demonstrated that autophagic degradation of lipid droplets (lipophagy) was not essential for breaking down lipid droplets. Conversely, autophagy contributed to lipid droplet formation and played a key role in sustaining lipid droplet stores for energy production. In addition, cholesterol biosynthesis/cholesterol esterification and fatty acid synthesis also contributed to maintaining lipid droplet stores for bioenergetics during hepatocyte polarization. In summary, multiple cellular pathways are co-ordinated to maintain lipid droplet homeostasis and sustain fatty acid β-oxidation during hepatocyte polarization.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
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Establishment of human cellular disease models for Wilson disease for an individualized therapy develop-ment having the capacity to address both hepatic and neurologic forms of the disease
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A family of vertebrate and insect lipid droplet associated proteins. They consist of a conserved N-terminal PAT domain (an alpha-helical region of about 110 amino acids), an 11-mer repeat region, and lipid-binding hydrophobic regions or 4-helix bundles near their C-termini. Perilipins transiently or constitutively localize to LIPID DROPLETS in ADIPOCYTES and FOAM CELLS, especially in regions adjacent to the PLASMA MEMBRANE and ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM. They are critical for lipid droplet synthesis and homeostasis as well as the regulation of lipid metabolism. Genetic variations in perilipins are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS; OBESITY; and DIABETES MELLITUS.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Proteins, such as PERILIPINS, that localize to LIPID DROPLETS either transiently or constitutively.
A perilipin that localizes to LIPID DROPLETS; CYTOPLASM; ENDOSOMES; and PLASMA MEMBRANE, especially in MACROPHAGES. It functions as a transporter of free fatty acids to lipid droplets to promote their biogenesis and growth. It is also required for the transport of the MANNOSE-6-PHOSPHATE RECEPTOR from endosomes to the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK. Its structure consists of four helix bundles that interact with the hydrophobic lipid droplet surface.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
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