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Macrophages are one of the most versatile cells of the immune system, which can express distinct subtypes and functions depending on the physiological challenge. After skeletal muscle damage, inflammatory macrophages subtypes aids muscles to regeneration and are implicate on physical training adaption. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate two classic mice macrophage subtypes, and some inflammatory cytokines might involve with muscle adaption process after exercise. For this purpose, mice were exposed to an intermittent experimental protocol of downhill exercise (18 bouts of running, each bout of 5 minutes with a 2 minute rest interval, slope -16°) and euthanized before (CTRL), and one (D1), two (D2), and three (D3) days after exercise. After euthanasia, the (TB) was harvest and submitted to protein extraction, immunostaining, and mononuclear digestion procedures. The muscle size, macrophage accumulation, and cytokines were determined. We observed an increase in Ly6C+ macrophages subtype ( ≤ 0.05) in D2 and D3 compared with the control as well as a significant inverse correlation (C.C=-0.52; ≤ 0.05) between Ly6C+ and Ly6C- macrophage subtypes. Moreover, was also observed elevation in several cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-13) at D3, although not IL-4 which tends to decrease at this time point ( = 0.06). Downhill exercises preferentially recruited Ly6C+ macrophages with important pro-inflammatory cytokines elevation at D3. Moreover, despite the elevation of several cytokines involved with myogenesis, was also observed an increase in IL-6 and IL-13, which potentially involves muscle adaption training after acute exercise.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
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