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Effective defense of Arabidopsis against filamentous pathogens requires two mechanisms, both of which involve biosynthesis of tryptophan (Trp)-derived metabolites. Extracellular resistance involves products of PEN2-dependent metabolism of indole glucosinolates (IGs). Restriction of further fungal growth requires PAD3-dependent camalexin and other, as yet uncharacterized, indolics. This study focuses on the function of CYP71A12 monooxygenase in pathogen-triggered Trp-metabolism, including the biosynthesis of indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA). Moreover, to investigate the contribution of CYP71A12 and its products to Arabidopsis immunity, we analyzed infection phenotypes of multiple mutant lines combining pen2 with pad3, cyp71A12, cyp71A13, or cyp82C2. Metabolite profiling of cyp71A12 lines revealed a reduction in ICA accumulation. Additionally, analysis of mutant plants proved that low amounts of ICA can form during an immune response by CYP71B6/AAO1-dependent metabolism of indole acetonitrile, but not via IG hydrolysis. Infection assays with Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Colletotrichum tropicale, two pathogens representing different lifestyles, revealed cyp71A12-, cyp71A13-, and cyp82C2-associated defects associated with Arabidopsis immunity. Our results indicate that CYP71A12, but not CYP71A13, is the major enzyme responsible for the accumulation of ICA in Arabidopsis in response to pathogen ingression. We also show that both enzymes are key players in the resistance of Arabidopsis against selected filamentous pathogens after they invade. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Name: The New phytologist
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An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 18.104.22.168 and EC 22.214.171.124.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
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