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Ammunition primers consisting of a mixture of lead styphnate, barium nitrate, and antimony (III) sulfide, upon deflagration, lead to the formation of inorganic gunshot residue (GSR). The cations, from their predeflagration form, undergo reduction reactions during burning to form the classic spheroidal, micron-sized particles indicative of GSR. However, the rapidly changing pressure and temperature of the reaction zone implies that the reactions cannot go to completion. In this study, we use a conductivity detector to show that GSR produces an electrical pulse which corroborates the incomplete redox chemistry. We find that the shape of some GSR formed in an electric field also suggests its nonneutral character. Tantalizingly, the formation of GSR might be a result of Coulombic repulsion shattering the molten droplets in to smaller spheroids. Lastly, we suggest that deposition or transfer of GSR could be influenced by static electricity, an area which should be further studied.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of forensic sciences
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Hemodynamics monitoring using non-invasive transthoracic electrical bioimpedance ICON are compatible with standard invasive monitoring using pulse contour analysis EV1000
Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.
Evaluation of the contour of the PULSE waves which vary in different parts of the circulation and depend on physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions of the individual.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Technique used in AYURVEDIC MEDICINE, and EAST ASIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE, in which reading PULSE is used in the diagnosis of diseases.
The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.