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To grow and thrive plants must be able to adapt to both adverse environmental conditions and attack by a variety of pests. Elucidating the sophisticated mechanisms plants have developed to achieve this has been the focus of many studies. What is less well understood is how plants respond when faced with multiple stressors simultaneously. In this study we assess the response of Zea mays (maize) to the combinatorial stress of flooding and infestation with the insect pest Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm). This combined stress leads to elevated production of the defense hormone salicylic acid, which does not occur in the individual stresses, and the resultant salicylic acid dependent increase in S. frugiperda resistance. Remodeling of phenylpropanoid pathways also occurs in response to this combinatorial stress leading to increased production of the anti-insect C-glycosyl flavones (maysins) and the herbivore induced volatile phenolics, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate. Furthermore, changes in cellular redox status also occur, as indicated by reductions in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity. These data suggest that metabolite changes important for flooding tolerance and anti-insect defense may act both additively and synergistically to provide extra protection to the plant.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant, cell & environment
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Free-standing or supported light weight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
Devices or tools used in combat or fighting in order to kill or incapacitate.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of insect in the mealybug family Pseudococcidae.
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