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In vitro methods were used to assess the full potential for decomposition (measured as biogas formation) from pit latrine samples taken from the top layer of 15 Tanzanian latrines. We found considerable variability in the decomposition rate and extent. This was compared with decomposition in the same latrines, measured by comparing top layer composition with fresh stools and deeper (older) layers, to assess whether this potential was realised in situ. Results showed a close match between the extent of organic material breakdown in situ and in vitro, indicating that anaerobic digestion is the dominant pathway in latrines. The average potential decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) (determined as methane production in vitro within 60 days) and actual measured decrease in situ are 68.9% ± 11.3 and 69.7% ± 19.4, respectively. However in the in vitro tests, where samples were diluted in water, full decomposition was achieved in 2 months, whereas in situ it can take years; this suggests that water addition may offer a simple route to improving latrine performance. The results also allowed us to estimate, for the first time to our knowledge using experimental data, the contribution that latrines make to greenhouse gas emissions globally. This amounts to ∼2% of annual US emissions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.
Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.