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Intraspecific cryptic invasions may occur when new strains of an invasive species are introduced into an area where this species had already been introduced previously. In plant pathogens, such invasions are not well studied, even if potentially they can have severe consequences. Here, we investigated the effects of a potential intraspecific invasion in Europe of Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) non-European strains are more virulent on Castanea sativa than those already present in Europe because they have never encountered this new host, and (2) the variation in virulence among strains is higher within native than within introduced populations. In a greenhouse, two-year old C. sativa seedlings were inoculated with C. parasitica strains from South Korea, the USA and Switzerland and lesion development and seedling mortality weekly recorded. Additionally, growth and sporulation of the strains were measured in vitro on agar medium at 15 and 24 °C. While lesion growth was similar for all strains, seedlings inoculated with strains from South Korea and Switzerland died faster than seedlings inoculated with strains from the USA. Moreover, in vitro strains from South Korea grew faster and produced more spores at both temperatures than the strains from the other two countries. In conclusion, our results did not support the two hypotheses. All strains, regardless of their origin, were found to be highly virulent on the inoculated chestnut seedlings. Nevertheless, current phytosanitary measures to avoid the introduction of new genotypes of C. parasitica into Europe should be further implemented.
This article was published in the following journal.
Lymphovascular invasion and perineural invasion are histopathological features associated with higher-risk colon cancer.
Multiple introductions are key features for establishment and persistence of introduced species. However, little is known about the contribution of genetic admixture to the invasive potential of popul...
Risk-minimization measures (RMM), including label revisions were implemented in Europe for domperidone because of evidence of increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. In ac...
Methylisothiazolinone (MI) has caused an unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy in Europe and elsewhere. Subsequently, regulatory action has been taken, at least in Europe, aiming at reducing risk ...
Success of alien plants is often attributed to high competitive ability. However, not all aliens become dominant, and not all natives are vulnerable to competitive exclusion. Here, we quantified compe...
Pancreatic cancer often spreads through local invasion into local structures, including fat, blood vessels, nerves, and nearby organs (stomach, duodenum, spleen, bile duct). Local microsco...
1. Identify the tissue proteins associated with early breast cancer invasion phases without lymph node involvement . 2. Consider their role in the invasion and the risk of tumor sp...
The accurate prediction of depth of tumor invasion in early gastric cancer is essential for the proper selection of candidates for endoscopic resection. Conventional endoscopy and endoscop...
We have identified insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 as an invasion suppressor gene in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, and showed association with lower cancer migration...
Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in global, which accounts for 19% of the total and poses great hazards to male health. Unfavorable factors including prostatic specific antig...
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The region of Europe generally from the area of the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains of Russia.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.