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To design an affinity ligand for purification of antigen-binding fragment (Fab) antibody, variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) phage libraries were constructed from Fab-immunized Alpaca and subjected to biopanning against Fabs. To find the specific binders, we directly applied high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis of the VHH sequences in the panned phages on next-generation sequencer. The efficiently enriched sequences were aligned for construction of the phylogenetic tree to be categorized into five groups. VHHs from three major groups were first selected to analyze their properties as an affinity ligand. However, those VHHs were not suitable as an affinity ligand because of lack of resistance against alkaline pH and/or difficulty in acidic elution from the affinity column. So, we further searched the candidates from minor group sequences. Among five, one VHH showed the binding ability but with low affinity against Fabs. Therefore, we improved its affinity-by-affinity maturation through error-prone PCR library techniques. The final designed VHH showed highly alkaline pH resistance and easy acidic elution together with high affinity to Fabs. These results indicate that HTS techniques combined with biopanning and followed by error-prone PCR library techniques is powerful in designing specific binders with desired properties.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Monoclonal antibodies in immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy
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An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...