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Transmasculine individuals who have a cervix may be at risk of cervical cancer, but they face a number of barriers to accessing care, including difficulty finding knowledgable and culturally sensitive providers who are willing to care for transgender patients. We examined gynecologic health care providers' willingness to provide routine care and Papanicolaou tests (Pap tests) to transmasculine individuals, including the role of personal, clinical, and professional factors. We surveyed attending physicians, advanced practitioners, and residents in the Women's Health department of a large, integrated Midwest health system ( = 60, 74.1% response rate). A majority of participants were female (68.3%) and white (73.3%). Most had met a transgender person before (79.7%), and 40.7% had cared for a transgender patient in the past 5 years. Most reported willingness to provide routine care (74.6%) and Pap tests (85.0%) to transmasculine people. Bivariate analysis suggests that having met a transgender person ( = 0.028), higher empathy scores ( = 0.015), political views ( = 0.0130), and lower transphobia ( = 0.012) were associated with willingness to provide routine care to transmasculine individuals. Lower transphobia ( = 0.034) and political views ( < 0.001) were also associated with willingness to provide Pap tests to transmasculine people. Providers' willingness was not associated with barriers related to training or knowledge-only with personal biases and experiences. Transgender-inclusive health care training that addresses personal attitudes should be a routine part of training for all health professionals.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of women's health (2002)
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Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
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An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)
The process of helping patients to effectively and efficiently use the health care system when faced with one or more of these challenges: (1) choosing, understanding, and using health coverage or applying for assistance when uninsured; (2) choosing, using, and understanding different types of health providers and services; (3) making treatment decisions; and (4) managing care received by multiple providers.
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