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In this work, we report the development of Drude polarizable force-field parameters for the carboxylate and N-acetyl amine derivatives, extending the functionality of existing Drude polarizable carbohydrate force field. The force field parameters have been developed in a hierarchical manner, reproducing the quantum mechanical (QM) gas-phase properties of small model compounds representing the key functional group in the carbohydrate derivatives, including optimization of the electrostatic and bonded parameters. The optimized parameters were then used to generate the models for carboxylate and N-acetyl amine carbohydrate derivatives. The transferred parameters were further tested and optimized to reproduce crystal geometries and J-coupling data from NMR experiments. The parameter development resulted in the incorporation of D-glucuronate, L-iduronate, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) sugars into the Drude polarizable force field. The parameters developed in this study were then applied to study the conformational properties of glycosaminoglycan polymer hyaluronan, composed of D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, in aqueous solution. Upon comparing the results from the additive and polarizable simulations it was found that the inclusion of polarization improved the description of the electrostatic interactions observed in hyaluronan resulting in enhanced conformational flexibility. The developed Drude polarizable force field parameters in conjunction with the remainder of the Drude polarizable force field parameters can be used for the future studies involving carbohydrates and their conjugates in complex, heterogeneous systems.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of chemical theory and computation
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A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 126.96.36.199) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 188.8.131.52). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.
A hexosiminidase that specifically hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.