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The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril is commonly used to treat chronic heart failure in children. Because some children are unable to swallow capsules or tablets, a new, age-appropriate, orodispersible minitablet (ODMT) containing 1 mg of enalapril was developed within the EU-funded LENA (Labeling of Enalapril from Neonates up to Adolescents) consortium. In order to support the clinical evaluation of this new formulation in children, a relative bioavailability study was performed in healthy adults, comparing the bioavailability of enalapril in the ODMT with that of a reference product (RP) Renitec, a registered standard enalapril tablet formulation. In this open-label, randomized 3-way crossover study, 24 healthy subjects received a 10-mg enalapril dose administered as (1) 2 × 5-mg tablets of the RP swallowed with water, (2) 10 × 1-mg ODMT swallowed with water, and (3) 10 × 1 mg ODMT dispersed on the tongue. When the relative bioavailability of the ODMT formulation swallowed with water was compared with that of the RP, the estimated 90%CIs for the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC ) and or peak concentration (C ) of enalapril were 92.34% to 106.49% and 91.28% to 115.72%, respectively, which are within the accepted bioequivalence limits of 80% to 125%. Following dispersion of the ODMT in the mouth, a slightly higher C for enalapril was observed as compared with the RP with an upper 90%CI of 127.57%, slightly exceeding the bioequivalence limit. Taken together, it was demonstrated that the method of administration of the ODMT, swallowed or dispersed, did not significantly affect the bioavailability of enalapril.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical pharmacology in drug development
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Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Coded listings of physician or other professional services using units that indicate the relative value of the various services they perform. They take into account time, skill, and overhead cost required for each service, but generally do not consider the relative cost-effectiveness. Appropriate conversion factors can be used to translate the abstract units of the relative value scales into dollar fees for each service based on work expended, practice costs, and training costs.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS that is used to treat hypertension.
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