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Plant innate immunity is triggered via direct or indirect recognition of pathogen effectors by the NLR family immune receptors. Mechanistic understanding of plant NLR function has relied on structural information from individual NLR domains and inferences from studies on animal NLRs. Recent reports of the cryo-EM structures of the Arabidopsis plant immune receptor ZAR1 in monomeric inactive and transition states, as well as the active oligomeric state or the "resistosome," have afforded a quantum leap in our understanding of how plant NLRs function. In this Review, we outline the recent structural findings and examine their implications for the activation of plant immune receptors more broadly. We also discuss how NLR signaling in plants, as illustrated by the ZAR1 structure, is analogous to innate immune receptor signaling mechanisms across kingdoms, drawing particular attention to the concept of signaling by cooperative assembly formation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell host & microbe
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Regeneration of normal immune function after immune depleting procedures or infections (e.g., HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION). Delayed and incomplete reconstitution of the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE system in particular involving T-CELLS is associated with increase or relapse of infection.
Type-I membrane glycoproteins that are expressed primarily on the surface of CD4 or CD8-positive T-CELLS; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and some populations of B CELLS. They are characterized by an N-terminal, extracellular IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIKE DOMAIN and a membrane-proximal IMMUNOGLOBULIN C2-SET DOMAIN. SLAMF receptors typically signal through homophilic interactions and are important for mediating the immune response and immune cell differentiation.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A sub-family of smad proteins that inhibit cell signaling by RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. They form autoinhibitory feedback loops in the TGF-BETA signaling pathway and mediate signaling cross-talk with other signaling pathways
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...